SOME y ANY

en INGLES

 

 

 

Usamos

 

SOME

 

1. Siempre:

 en una oración afirmativa o en invitaciones.

 

2. A veces:

 en una pregunta.

 

3. Nunca:

 en una oración negativa.

 

1. Oraciones Afirmativas:

She carries some flowers in her basket.

You saw some cattle on the road.

You left some money on the table.

She noticed some problems at the time.

They watched some videos on the bus.

He has some idea of the dangers.

You know some of my friends.

She met some students on the train.

There are some stars in the sky.

He writes some articles in his spare time.

 

INVITACIONES:

Would you like some coffee?

Will you visit us some other time?

Can I offer you some lemonade?

Can you sell me some bread, please?

En estos casos de invitación se usa ‘some’ en el sentido de una cantidad indefinida respecto de una cantidad existente y cierta, es decir, a partir de lo que alguien tiene.

Al contrario, ‘any’ es una cantidad desconocida, como la variable X en álgebra (más adelante).

 

2. A veces: en una pregunta:

Does she carry some flowers in her basket?

(i.e. among other things in her basket)

Did you see some cattle on the road?

(among other things)

Did you leave some money on the table?

(as a tip: if the meaning is ‘by accident’ any is better)

Did she notice some problems at the time?

(a presumption that problems existed)

Did they watch some videos on the long-distance bus?

(a presumption that videos are shown)

Does he have some idea of the dangers?

(a presumption that dangers are known to exist)

Did she meet some students on the train?

(justifiable if she’s a student – otherwise any is better)

 

En todas de las preguntas arriba el uso ‘any’ sería mejor, pero no hay duda de que usamos también ‘some’ en las preguntas. Probablemente usamos ‘some’ casualmente, en estos casos, pero las distinciones sutiles que he notado anteriormente son válidas.

 

3. Nunca: En una oración negativa.

Estos son ejemplos del uso incorrecto de "some" en una oración negativa:

She hasn't got some flowers. X

They haven't got some friends. X

I don't know some songs. X

I can't see some cars. X

En estos ejemplos de oraciones negativas "any" es correcto.

 

 Nota también que:

‘I ain’t got none.’ and

‘I ain’t got any.’

No se trata de inglés. Incluso Tarzán no habla así.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

ANY

 

Usamos

ANY

 

1. Siempre: en una pregunta

SI O NO, TODO O NADA, y así en todos estos ejemplos:

Does she carry any flowers in her basket?

Did you see any cattle on the road?

Did you leave any money on the table?

Did she notice any problems at the time?

Did they watch any videos on the bus?

Does he have any idea of the dangers?

Do you know any of my friends?

Did she meet any students on the train?

Are there any stars in the sky?

Does he write any articles in his spare time?

‘Any’ es mucho mejor en las preguntas: es directa y no depende de presunciones, del contexto o trasfondo.

 

2. Siempre: en una oración negativa:

significa sencillamente – No.

She doesn’t carry any flowers in her basket.

You didn’t see any cattle on the road.

You didn’t leave any money on the table.

She didn’t notice any problems at the time.

They didn’t watch any videos on the bus.

He didn’t have any idea of the dangers.

You didn’t know any of my friends.

She didn’t meet any students on the train.

There aren’t any stars in the sky.

He doesn’t write any articles in his spare time.

 

3. Nunca: En una oración afirmativa.

Sin embargo, ‘any’ puede aparecer en una oración afirmativa como parte de una frase fija:

 

any amount, any kind, any more, any time, any day now

 

He had any amount of money available.

You can choose any kind of gift you want.

Tell me if you want any more soup.

He’s welcome here; he can visit us any time.

The tourists will start arriving any day now.

 

A excepción de estas frases fijas,

no se puede usar ‘any’ en una oración afirmativa.